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No InstallTaonga: The Island FarmUndo More From Our Partners Police Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.org Tuesday 26 October 2010 7:35 pm whatsapp AS THE wine is poured, Greg Dyke winces slightly: “just a little for me”. That’s nothing to do with the wine, which is one of the world’s best – a 1991 Penfolds Grange – but Dyke, whose stint as Director-General of the BBC ended in controversy in 2004 when he resigned on the publication of the Hutton Report, is now chair of the British Film Institute (BFI) and, caught in the whirl of the London Film Festival, he is out for premieres and drinks every night.Still, that doesn’t dent his enthusiasm: “The film I saw last night, The King’s Speech, was wonderful, an absolute sensation”. At 63, Dyke still gives off a irrepressible and infectious energy, and as he cheerfully approves the abolition of the Film Council – “I don’t mourn their passing – they never funded the BFI properly” – and reaches for his glass, the note of caution is swiftly set aside.We are tasting this very special vintage – with intense licorice and dark berry flavours, it also aids the flow of conversation marvellously – in the sixteenth-century wine cellar of the Stafford Hotel, courtesy of Penfolds. Dyke will be speaking on 2 November at the Hospital club in Covent Garden, and those attending will be able to taste the same wine and hear both from Peter Gago, Penfolds chief winemaker, and from Dyke about why he calls 1991 his own vintage year. whatsapp Show Comments ▼ KCS-content A vintage performer relives a year when he made £7m in just one day Share vintage yearEducated at Hayes Grammar School and the University of York, Dyke’s CV is full of incident, from saving TV-am with Roland Rat to his battles at the BBC, but in 1991 he pulled off a remarkable coup that made his personal fortune and showed his rivals why this amiable businessman should not be treated lightly. At the time, Dyke was managing director of London Weekend Television (LWT).LWT was faced with a preposterously-structured blind auction for ITV franchises, which Dyke says was a classic case of someone coming up with a decent free market idea and parliament amending it into a bizarre, unrecognisable mess. But Dyke rose to the challenge. “A couple of weeks out, I stopped doing my job and turned myself into an investigative journalist. I spoke to everyone, people they’d almost appointed, found out who was properly capitalised, found out what ITN’s bid was going to be. So by the end I knew as much as I could about everyone else’s hand.”Dyke had also read the small print. Puzzling through the detail of the auction structure, he realised that a “quality threshold” allowed him to underbid his rivals and still win. LWT bid £7m and won, the competition bid £30m and lost. Dyke also won against TV-am, the company he had once saved and which later sacked him. “That was one of those cases of revenge being best delivered cold,” he smiles. The best revenge of all may have been the money Dyke made for himself on the deals – the franchise decisions on one day in 1991 eventually netted him £7m. “We had the most amazing party that night – people were still asleep on the floor the next morning.”funding the bbcDyke never had to worry about money again, which perhaps leaves him now more willing than most to speak as he finds. Tony Blair and Alastair Campbell are dismissed as “unpleasant political thugs”, the experience of whose authoritarian instincts in government will keep him from ever voting Labour again. His report on the creative industries for the Conservatives was handed in but never published, probably because of his recommendation that the most sacred of cows, the BBC’s licence fee, should be killed off.“I believe the BBC should be well-funded. If we’re stuck with a model that means it won’t be, that ought to change. The licence fee’s days are numbered; it can’t be sustained when people can just watch on the internet now. I saw my kids at university doing it. Anyway, it’s an unfair tax: the poor pay the same and the rich probably use it more. I’d like to see a hypothecated tax.”He also drily notes that rumours of the BBC’s 16 per cent austerity cut are greatly exaggerated “The BFI would have welcomed that deal. You have to remember household growth of 1 per cent a year will add to the licence fee income, and there’s a big chunk only temporarily assigned to digital switchover until 2012. It’s a good swap for the guarantee that the licence fee will continue for six more years.”Dyke’s views on the future of television deserve attention: he is one of the fathers of Freeview, an idea that he jokes was “too good for the public sector”, that made free digital television simple enough to become mainstream – 11m boxes later, it is hard to recall it even had to be invented.Still, for all Dyke’s evident interest in these questions, he denies any desire to be back in the driving seat. Rumours about his return to Channel 5 were “silly” and while there was talk in March this year of Dyke being considered to take over as editor of the Independent, that “didn’t work out”.Dyke doesn’t seem especially sorry. Living a portfolio life with plenty of holidays – and excellent wine – Dyke is happy to just pass on a little of his advice to the next generation.Greg Dyke will give a Penfolds’ Vintage Years speech for budding entrepreneurs on 2nd November at The Hospital Club, London, followed by a Penfolds wine-tasting. Register for a ticket at [email protected] | GREG DYKEAge: 63Education: Hayes Grammar School and York University Family: Married with four children Career: Dyke began his career as a local newspaper journalist. He worked at LWT before becoming editor-in-chief of TV-am in 1983. Dyke then moved to TVS and LWT, after which he became chief executive at Pearson and also guided the creation of Channel 5. Director-General of the BBC from 2000, Dyke resigned after the Hutton report in 2004. He is Chair of Brentford FC, Chair of the BFI and Chancellor of York UniversityFamous achievements: Put Roland Rat on TV-am; created Freeview; cut administration costs at the BBC from 24 per cent to 15 per cent of total incomeMotto: “Be bold; go for it.” Tags: NULL
3rd January 2019 | By Josephine Watson FAST TRACK provides Cashmio with CRM tool Tech & innovation Email Address AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Topics: Tech & innovation Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter FAST TRACK has partnered with Cashmio Casino to provide the popular online casino operator with its customer relationship management tool – FAST TRACK CRM.This is the first agreement in which FAST TRACK has licensed out its pioneering CRM software, which forms part of the management and technology services it provides to the likes of Metal Casino, Ikibu and Casino Calzone.FAST TRACK CRM provides casino operators with the ability to manage, automate and analyse all aspects of the player journey in one place and all in real time.The tool has been built for driving efficiency, giving users the ability to focus on what really matters to them.“When searching for a CRM solution, we struggled to find the right product that matched our requirements as a brand,” Cashmio CEO Maria Boelius, said.“But after speaking with the team at FAST TRACK, it was clear the FAST TRACK CRM was the tool for us to achieve our objectives.”Simon Lidzen CEO of FAST TRACK, said: “Cashmio has been a strategic partner for us, providing us with great insight in how we can provide FT CRM as a standalone product.“Cashmio’s vision is clear; they wanted an efficient tool, with real time marketing capabilities and to remove the ad hoc requirements to drag lists and administrate multiple systems.“This is how future operations are run, and this is what our tool is built for.”
Football Euro 2020, Switzerland vs Turkey: Top 5 players to watch out for in SUI vs TUR Euro 2020: Didier Deschamps offers Ousmane Dembele update ahead of Portugal match Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Former India captain Venkatesh Shanmugam on Wednesday supported All India Football Federation’s idea to hire an indigenous head coach for the national team but said it should be made a reality as soon as possible.AIFF General Secretary Kushal Das had recently said that his organisation “hopes in the next 5 years the national team is coached by an Indian coach”. TAGSAIFFhome-grown national head coachVenkateshVenkatesh welcomes AIFF’s idea SHARE Bett1Open 2021 Final: Liudmila Samsonova beat Belinda Bencic to clinch title Facebook Twitter Football YourBump15 Actors That Hollywood Banned For LifeYourBump|SponsoredSponsoredPost FunThese Twins Were Named “Most Beautiful In The World,” Wait Until You See Them TodayPost Fun|SponsoredSponsoredDefinitionTime Was Not Kind To These 28 CelebritiesDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily Funny|SponsoredSponsoredDefinitionMost Embarrassing Mistakes Ever Made In HistoryDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStory|SponsoredSponsored Football By Kunal Dhyani – August 5, 2020 Euro 2020, Italy vs Wales LIVE: Italy kick-off proceedings in Rome; Follow Live Updates, SportSport News Football Football PUBG Mobile – Krafton IPO: PUBG Mobile promoters Krafton ready to break all records, aims 5 billion IPO Sport News PSL 2021 Playoffs Live: How to watch PSL 2021 Playoffs LIVE streaming in your country, India Euro 2020 LIVE broadcast in more than 200 countries, check how you can watch Live Streaming of EURO 2020 in your country RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeIPL 2020: Bad news for Sunrisers Hyderabad’s Jonny BairstowFree Fire Redeem Codes for April 13th, Best ways to Redeem themGarena Free Fire: Top Three App tricks to earn Free Diamonds in Garena Free Fire OB28 Version“It’s very motivating and encouraging to hear such words from the General Secretary,” Shanmugam, the current assistant coach of India senior national team, said in a live chat with AIFF TV.“I think 5 years is quite a long time. There are many young Indian coaches in the Hero ISL and the Hero I-League who are performing well and I believe they can make it.”He, however, said that the domestic coaches need to update their knowledge all the time to be up for the challenge.“But it’s not easy and is a very big challenge. You need to constantly update yourself, gain knowledge if you are to improve as a coach. It does not end there. The manner in which you transfer all of that to the player will define yourself as a coach,” he said“We need to keep it in mind that coaching the national team is entirely different than coaching a club. Getting the team to prepare in a short span of time in a short time is extremely critical,” said the 41-year-old former midfielder.Shanmugam said for a coach, man management skills are crucial that help in bringing out the best from a player.“You have to hone your man-management skills. Players will have their attitude but as the coach you have to be confident to take care of them. It’s not ideal to shout at a player in front of everyone. Personal interactions grow the trust.“Players should be treated respectfully. It should be mutual. They need personal space. These help a coach bring out the best from the player.”He advised players to concentrate more on playing rather than on social media.“Senior players are mature enough and they know how to handle criticism on social media. But youngsters are more vulnerable and they should stay away. It may affect their performances. They should not be bothered about social media, rather need to concentrate on playing more,” he quipped.The 2002 AIFF Player of the Year also lauded the current coach education system in the country saying “it’s paving the way for Indian coaches to come forward”. Previous articleWinning Ashes in England and Test series in India are two big mountains to climb: SmithNext articleDream11 ECS T10 LIVE: MAL vs AF Dream11 Team Prediction, ECS T10 Malmo LIVE, Team squads, Match Prediction Kunal DhyaniSports Tech enthusiast, he reports on Sports Tech industry and writes on sports products. Venkatesh welcomes AIFF’s idea for a home-grown national head coach Euro 2020, Italy vs Wales: 3 key battles to watch out for in ITA vs WAL Esports Football Euro 2020, North Macedonia vs Netherlands: Top 5 players to watch out for in MKD vs NED Football Football Euro 2020, Switzerland vs Turkey LIVE: Must-win game for both teams, Kickoff at 9.30PM IST; Follow Live Updates
Photographs: Parham Taghioff, Alireza Esfandiari, Ahmad Khosravi Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/883529/balkaneh-residential-building-daal-studio Clipboard CopyApartments•Fardis, Iran Area: 2270 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project 2017 Projects Iran Year: “COPY” Manufacturers: Accurate Dorwin, Arya choob Company, DOORWIN, HEIDARI, HEIDARI BRICK, Parsa wood CompanyTeam:Helen Afzali, Mohammad Reza Esfandiari, Azin Fathi, Atoosa ShiranConstruction:Ahmad KhosraviArchitects In Charge:Ahmad Khosravi, Alireza Esfandiari, Hilda TehraniCity:FardisCountry:IranMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Parham TaghioffRecommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System – LINEAFiber Cements / CementsULMA Architectural SolutionsPaper Facade Panel in Leioa School RestorationFiber Cements / CementsDuctal®Ductal® Cladding Panels (EU)WoodLunawoodThermowood FacadesText description provided by the architects. The Elka residential building is built on a land of 624 square meters with a width of 14 meters in the Fardis district of Karaj. The project consists of five residential floors and a parking floor, with entrance to the northern side of the building. Due to the low power of property buyers in this area, the employer demanded three residential units per floor. The quality of construction in this area is very low, so the design team has devoted its efforts to reviving these forgotten qualities.Save this picture!© Alireza EsfandiariSave this picture!DiagramDue to the flatness of the wall facing the street of the surrounding buildings, an attempt has been made to design terraces out of the façade, so we have more connection with the street. The design of the terraces is modular to create more harmony with the surrounding context. Also, in order to compensate the colorless environment, we used red brick and wood as the main materials, which makes the project more prominent and creates a personality for it.Save this picture!© Alireza EsfandiariTo control the amount of light and preserve confidentiality and visibility the exterior façade is made of porous brick. behind the brick, we have the double glazed window glass that shapes the border between inside and outside of the project. This composition of brick and glass along with wooden terraces forms the façade of the building. due to the lack of sunlight in the North View, it has been tried to provide the most glass facades. However, in the southern view, due to the intensity of the sun›s exposure, as much as possible avoided large openings and only 16.5 percent of the facade is made of glass. Also, on this side, the terraces are designed inside the volume to avoid direct sunlight.Save this picture!© Parham TaghioffSave this picture!Floor PlansSave this picture!© Parham TaghioffIn the north facade, we designed living spaces near the street and bedrooms in the central part of the building to prevent as much noise pollution of the street as possible for resting areas, also with using brick and wood inside the apartment we tried to improve the quality of these spaces and, by creating a warm and intimate atmosphere, the concept of a home for living in these apartments will be strengthened.Save this picture!© Alireza EsfandiariProject gallerySee allShow lessRural House Renovation in Zhoushan / Evolution DesignSelected ProjectsKnikno House / Fabian Tan ArchitectSelected ProjectsProject locationAddress:Fardis, IranLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Architects: DAAL Studio, ELKA Architects Area Area of this architecture project Save this picture!© Parham Taghioff+ 21 Share Photographs ArchDaily Apartments ELKA Residential Building / DAAL Studio + ELKA ArchitectsSave this projectSaveELKA Residential Building / DAAL Studio + ELKA Architects ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/883529/balkaneh-residential-building-daal-studio Clipboard ELKA Residential Building / DAAL Studio + ELKA Architects “COPY” CopyAbout this officeDAAL StudioOfficeFollowELKA ArchitectsOfficeFollowProductsConcreteBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsFardisIranPublished on November 24, 2017Cite: “ELKA Residential Building / DAAL Studio + ELKA Architects” 24 Nov 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
ArchDaily Manufacturers: AutoDesk, GRAPHISOFT, Adobe Systems Incorporated, Agratto, Continente Inox, Decortiles, Eliane, Gilson Golombieski, Hommi, Imports, Marcel Dallagnol, Max Forte, Muma, Ondo, Persol, Ralo Linear Elleve, Santa Luzia, Tok&Stok, Trimble Navigation “COPY” Brazil Projects Lido 501 Apartment / Atelier Aberto ArquiteturaSave this projectSaveLido 501 Apartment / Atelier Aberto Arquitetura ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/948608/lido-501-apartment-atelier-aberto-arquitetura Clipboard Photographs Year: “COPY” Architects: Atelier Aberto Arquitetura Area Area of this architecture project Renata Beck Lido 501 Apartment / Atelier Aberto Arquitetura Photographs: Marcelo Donadussi Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project 2020 CopyAbout this officeAtelier Aberto ArquiteturaOfficeFollowProductsWoodConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsInterior DesignResidential InteriorsApartment InteriorsPorto AlegreBrazilPublished on October 31, 2020Cite: “Lido 501 Apartment / Atelier Aberto Arquitetura” [Apartamento Lido 501 / Atelier Aberto Arquitetura] 31 Oct 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis source: Kage Partnership £35,500 Kage Partnership publish fundraising salary survey Job TypeSalary Range Average Salary The Kage Partnership’s annual salary survey shows that direct marketers have gained the highest salary increase over the past year.Recruitment consultantants the Kage Partnership have published their fundraising salary survey which is based on the fundraising vacancy details of over 150 charities which have used their services in the year to January 2002.The figures, which relate only to jobs based in London, show an average salary increase of just over 3% over last year’s figure. Direct marketing fundraisers achieved the biggest increase of around 5% at both manager and officer/executive level. Advertisement £16,500 27 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Fundraising Manager£23 – 40,000 Fundraising Officer/Executive£18 – 29,000 £29,000 The salary figures used in the survey included London weighting. Overall there is still a skills shortage, and Kage found that experienced candidates were often able to negotiate starting salaries towards the top of the advertised range. £22,000 Fundraising Assistant£14 – 19,000 Howard Lake | 10 April 2002 | News Director/Head of Fundraising (small/medium size organisations)£30 – 45,000
Home / Daily Dose / The Week Ahead: Senate Committee Vote on Comptroller of the Currency About Author: Joey Pizzolato Joey Pizzolato is the Online Editor of DS News and MReport. He is a graduate of Spalding University, where he holds a holds an MFA in Writing as well as DePaul University, where he received a B.A. in English. His fiction and nonfiction have been published in a variety of print and online journals and magazines. To contact Pizzolato, email [email protected] Related Articles Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Next Thursday, September 7, the Senate Banking Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs will convene to hold an executive session to vote on the nominations of Joseph Otting to be Comptroller of the Currency, and the Honorable Randal Quarles to be member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and Vice Chairman for the supervision of the board of governors.Otting and Quarles’ sat in a joint confirmation hearing in front of the committee back in July, where they fielded questions regarding Dodd-Frank rollbacks, the Volker Rule, and loosening regulations on banks. Some Democrats on the committee, including Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, remained skeptical.The vote will take place at 9 a.m. EDT in the Dirksen Senate office building. Federal Reserve OCC Senate Banking Committee 2017-09-03 Joey Pizzolato Other Events in the Week Ahead: Freddie Mac Weekly Mortgage Survey, Thursday, 10 a.m. EDT.The Beige Book, Wednesday, 2 p.m. EDTFed Balance Sheet, Thursday, 4:30 p.m. EDT Subscribe Tagged with: Federal Reserve OCC Senate Banking Committee The Week Ahead: Senate Committee Vote on Comptroller of the Currency Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago September 3, 2017 1,189 Views The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Previous: FCC: Do Not Call Next: Women in Housing List Recognized in MReport’s September Issue Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Print This Post Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Share Save Sign up for DS News Daily in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, Headlines, News
Newsx Adverts Kerry is the most popular place to have a ‘stay-cation’ in Ireland.A new survey puts Galway in close second for top Irish destinations, with Donegal also in the top 10Angela Keegan is managing director of the myhome.ie website which carried out the research. She believes there’s one simple explanation for the trends…………….[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/stay7.mp3[/podcast] Donegal in Top 10 for “staycations”, but Kerry comes out on top Google+ Twitter Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week Pinterest Google+ Facebook Facebook WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH WhatsApp Previous articleFine Gael delegation meet with management at Letterkenny GeneralNext articleWoman killed in Milford crash named News Highland Pinterest LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton Twitter Three factors driving Donegal housing market – Robinson By News Highland – August 11, 2010 Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published NPHET ‘positive’ on easing restrictions – Donnelly
Homepage BannerNews Guidelines for reopening of hospitality sector published Calls for maternity restrictions to be lifted at LUH WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Twitter Google+ Google+ Three areas of Donegal will share over €920,000 in funding following publication of the latest round of the Fishery Harbours Capital Investment Programme.The bulk of the Donegal allocation will go to Killybegs, with money also set aside for Burtonport and Port Arthur.It’s part of a national programme worth €5 million, with Deputy Dinny Mc Ginley saying it will bring very real benefits to Donegal…Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/dinny1pm.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. €920,000 in funding for Donegal harbours Pinterest Previous articleHSE concerned in significant drop in babies being vaccinatedNext articleDUP MLa says police admit they got policing of republican funeral wrong admin LUH system challenged by however, work to reduce risk to patients ongoing – Dr Hamilton GAA decision not sitting well with Donegal – Mick McGrath WhatsApp Nine Til Noon Show – Listen back to Wednesday’s Programme Facebook Pinterest Twitter Facebook By admin – July 21, 2015 Almost 10,000 appointments cancelled in Saolta Hospital Group this week
ColumnsReferendums And The Indian Constitution Swapnil Tripathi20 July 2020 8:45 PMShare This – xEarlier this month, Russia voted on an important referendum that brought significant changes to its Constitution. The Russians decided to grant President Putin the option of leading the country until the year 2036, by limiting a President’s Rule to two six-year terms in total rather than two consecutive terms. They also voted to effectively ban same-sex marriages in the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginEarlier this month, Russia voted on an important referendum that brought significant changes to its Constitution. The Russians decided to grant President Putin the option of leading the country until the year 2036, by limiting a President’s Rule to two six-year terms in total rather than two consecutive terms. They also voted to effectively ban same-sex marriages in the country. Interestingly, some scholars believe that a referendum was not needed to amend the Russian Constitution. However, President Putin went ahead with it to secure legitimacy and more importantly show the nation’s faith in him. Majority of democratic nations across the world, follow the system of an indirect democracy, wherein the citizens elect their representatives, who in turn make laws, determine policies and carry on administrative work. On the other hand, in some countries citizens directly take part in the administration of the country, decide on policy issues and make laws as well. This form is called a direct democracy and a referendum is a facet/means of it. In a referendum, the citizens are called to vote in person (rather than through their elected representatives) on a policy decision to be taken by the government (for instance, United Kingdom’s decision to leave the European Union) or an amendment to their Constitution. Several nations have incorporated provisions for referendums in their Constitution. Scholars have often debated and discussed the need to have a referendum on key policy issues in India. There were talks of a referendum on issues such as the grant of statehood to Delhi and the bifurcation of undivided Andhra Pradesh, however, they did not materialise. It has long been believed, that conducting a referendum is not possible in India, as the Constitution has no provisions for it. However, there have been few instances wherein a referendum has indeed been carried out in India. In the present post, I shall discuss the position of referendums in India, starting from the discussions in the Constituent Assembly. I shall also discuss instances wherein referendums were carried out and also the attempt to include a provision for referendums in the Constitution. A.Constituent Assembly and Referendums- The Constituent Assembly while debating upon the provisions of the Constitution, witnessed a lengthy discussion on the position of a referendum. It should be noted that the original draft placed before the Assembly, had no such provisions. During the discussions on adopting a National Language in India, a member suggested conducting a referendum. Dr. Rajendra Prasad (President of the Assembly) responded to this demand, by stating that any discussions on a referendum would be futile, since there is no provision for one in the Constitution (14 September 1949). Referendums came up again, during the debate on the provisions for amending the Constitution, wherein Shri Brajeshwar Prasad advocated for referendums and listed out its advantages. He stated that a referendum recognizes the sovereignty of the people and curbs absolutism of parliamentary majority. He remarked, “Sir, I am in favour of a referendum, because referendum has many advantages. Referendum is democratic as it is only an appeal to the people, and no democratic government can have any objection to resorting to referendum in order to resolve a deadlock, when there is a conflict between Parliament and provincial governments. Secondly, I am in favour of referendum because it cures patent defects in party governments. People think that it is too radical a weapon and that a conservative people like ourselves ought not to use it without proper consideration and thought. It is conservative since it ensures the maintenance of any law or institution which the majority. of the electors effectively wish to, preserve. Therefore it cannot be a radical weapon. Thirdly, Sir, referendum is a clear recognition of the sovereignty of the people. Fourthly, it would be a strong weapon for curbing the absolutism of a party possessed of a parliamentary majority.” (17 September 1949) Dr. Ambedkar cited the examples of the Irish Constitution, Swiss Constitution and the Australian Constitution, to argue that a referendum involves an elaborate and difficult procedure and hence, has not been included in our Constitution. The idea of referendum was hence, dropped. The Assembly’s underlying belief was that the elected representatives in the Parliament would be truly reflective of the will of the people, and hence, there was no need for a separate referendum procedure. B.Independent India and Referendums- The Constitution as adopted by the Constituent Assembly, did not have any provisions for a referendum. However, the nation witnessed referendums on five key occasions. First, during the incorporation of Chandernagore within the territory of India. In 1946, Chandernagore (then a French territory) was declared a free city and the French Government decided that it intended to leave the people of French establishments in India, with a right to decide their future fate and status. Therefore, in the year 1949 a referendum was conducted in Chandernagore in 1949 wherein the citizens voted in favour of merging with the territory of India. Subsequently, the administration of Chandernagore was transferred to India (In Re Berubari, AIR 1960 SC 845). Similarly, the second instance was of the princely state of Junagadh, wherein the citizens voted to accede to India rather than Pakistan in the year 1948 [State of Saurashtra v. Memon Haji Ismail, (1960) 1 SCR 537]. The third instance was of Pondicherry (a former French territory) voting to join the Indian Union in the year 1954. The fourth and the most debated referendum concerned the future of the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, and whether they would continue as a Union Territory or join the state of Maharashtra or Gujarat, respectively. Since the Constitution of India had no provisions for a referendum, the Union government passed the Goa, Daman and Diu (Opinion Poll) Act, 1966, giving the electors the choice to showcase their opinion. Interestingly, the constitutional validity of the Act was unsuccessfully challenged as well (PIO Fernandes v. Union of India, 1967 SCC Online GDD 7). The electors decided in favour of continuing as a Union territory. It should be noted that the government did not call the above exercise a ‘referendum’ but an Opinion Poll. However, in effect it was a referendum. The last referendum happened in the year 1975, wherein the inhabitants of Sikkim decided on their merger with India (Anjan Banerjee v. Union of India, 1993 SCC Online Cal 397). An unsuccessful attempt at a referendum was also made regarding the inclusion of Udham Singh Nagar to Uttaranchal, during the bifurcation of the state of Uttar Pradesh [Pradeep Chaudhary v. UOI, (2009) 12 SCC 248]. It should be noted that while the Constitution does not allow for referendums, the tribal areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram, recognised under the Sixth Schedule have incorporated provisions allowing referendums in election matters [For instance, United Khasi Jaintia Hills Autonomous District (Appointment and Succession of Chief and Headman) Act, 1959]. These areas have been given such autonomy so as to protect their distinct culture. C. Demand for Re-instating Referendums in the Constitution of India- The time of the 1960s and 70s was very significant for constitutional law in India. The Union government at the time tried to usurp complete authority over the Constitution, including its complete overhaul. In the famous case of Kesavananda Bharti v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225, the Supreme Court laid down the Basic Structure Doctrine according to which certain basic features of the Constitution could not be taken away by the Parliament, under its amending powers. In this very case, Justice Dwivedi (at par. 1784) had also remarked that in India there can be no law for a referendum, as the exclusive procedure for amending the Constitution is Article 368. Two years later, a State of Emergency was imposed in India during which grave human rights violations were committed by the government and its officials. The Union government passed the infamous 42nd Amendment [Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976 that gave unbridled powers to the Parliament. Therefore, when a new Union government came to power in the year 1977, it tried its best to undo the wrongs of the past. Parts of the 42nd Amendment were repealed through the 44th Amendment [Constitution (Forty Fourth Amendment) Act, 1978]. Interestingly, during the discussions on this amendment, the debate on referendums also resurfaced. Law Minister Shanti Bhushan was keen on granting additional protection to the provisions of fundamental rights and introduced a provision in the 44th Amendment that fundamental rights could be amended only through a referendum. Bhushan was also sceptical about letting the judiciary decide the components of the basic structure. He was of the view, that under the guide of protecting the basic structure, the Supreme Court could prevent a much-needed constitutional amendment. Therefore, he introduced a provision stating that wherever an amendment affected the basic features of the Constitution i.e. secularism, democracy, fundamental rights, free and fair elections, independence of the judiciary etc., the final call on it would be taken through a referendum. These provisions were part of an intense debate in the Parliament. Experts believed that the idea of a referendum was unconstitutional, as the Court in Kesavananda had categorically established that the basic structure could not be amended. Ultimately, the provisions on referendum were defeated in the Rajya Sabha and the 44th Amendment Bill was sent back to the Lok Sabha with changes. Arguably, this became the first instance in India’s parliamentary history, wherein a Constitution Amendment Bill passed by the Lok Sabha was changed and returned by the Rajya Sabha. The issue of incorporating referendums in the Constitution, was put to rest. Concluding Remarks- The Constitution of India is silent on a referendum, therefore theoretically a referendum is neither allowed nor prohibited. In other words, the government can theoretically conduct one so as to ascertain the will of the people towards a policy or a possible amendment. Based on the response, the government can take appropriate decisions, as witnessed in Goa, Daman and Diu. The only caveat with this exercise is that a referendum should not be considered as a formal tool for amending the Constitution, as that would go against the views of the Supreme Court. A country like India does not need a referendum. The periodical elections conducted, act as the referendum where people express their views at large. Constitutional expert Shri Subhash Kashyap has rightly remarked that, every election is a referendum on the basis of agenda, policy, programme and ideologies of the parties concerned. In my opinion, referendum in India shall carry the risk of stifling the voice of minorities. Even the Courts will be hesitant to interfere, knowing that the law in question is backed by the sovereign i.e. the people of India.(The author is a Delhi-based lawyer. The article was first published in his personal blog ‘The Basic Structure’. He may be reached at [email protected]) Next Story