Why are we so sleep deprived, and why does it matter?

first_img Please enter your comment! Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate The Anatomy of Fear LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply The VOICE of HealthBy Michael S. Jaffee, Vice-chair, Department of Neurology, University of Florida and first published on theconversation.com.As we prepare to “spring forward” for daylight saving time on March 11, many of us dread the loss of the hour’s sleep we incur by moving our clocks forward. For millions, the loss will be an added insult to the inadequate sleep they experience on a daily basis.Surveys show that 40 percent of American adults get less than the nightly minimum of seven hours of sleep recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the National Sleep Foundation. The National Institutes for Health estimate that between 50 million and 70 million people do not get enough sleep. These recommendations for minimal sleep are based on a review of many scientific studies evaluating the role of sleep in our bodies and the effects of sleep deprivation on the ability of our body to function at our peak performance level.I am a neurologist at the University of Florida who has studied the effects of both traumatic brain injury and sleep impairment on the brain. I have seen the effects of sleep impairment and the significant effects it can have.According to the National Sleep Foundation, American adults currently average 6.9 hours of sleep per night compared with the 1940s, when most American adults were averaging 7.9 hours a night, or one hour more each night. In fact, in 1942, 84 percent of Americans got the recommended seven to nine hours; in 2013, that number had dropped to 59 percent. Participants in that same Gallup poll reported on average they felt they needed 7.3 hours of sleep each night but were not getting enough, causing an average nightly sleep debt of 24 minutes. Fitbit in January 2018 announced results of a study it conducted of 6 billion nights of its customers’ sleep and reported that men actually get even less than women, about 6.5 hours.Why sleep mattersThe problems caused by sleep shortage go beyond tiredness. In recent years, studies have shown that adults who were short sleepers, or those who got less than seven hours in 24 hours, were more likely to report 10 chronic health conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, obesity, asthma, and depression, compared to those who got enough sleep, that is, seven or more hours in a 24-hour period.There are more challenges for children, as they are thought to have an increased sleep need compared to adults. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that children 6 to 12 years of age should sleep nine to 12 hours a day and teens 13 to 18 should sleep eight to 10 hours daily on a regular basis to promote optimal health.A Sleep Foundation poll of parents suggested that American children are getting one hour of sleep or more per night less than what their body and brain require.Researchers have found that sleep deprivation of even a single hour can have a harmful effect on a child’s developing brain. Inadequate sleep can affect synaptic plasticity and memory encoding, and it can result in inattentiveness in the classroom.Every one of our biological systems is affected by sleep. When we don’t sleep long enough or when we experience poor quality of sleep, there can be serious biological consequences.When we are sleep deprived, our bodies become more aroused through an enhanced sympathetic nervous system, known as “fight or flight.” There is a greater propensity for increased blood pressure and possible risk of coronary heart disease. Our endocrine system releases more cortisol, a stress hormone. The body has less glucose tolerance and greater insulin resistance, which in the long term can cause an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. Also, sleep deprivation causes a reduction in growth hormone and muscle maintenance.We also rely on sleep to maintain our metabolism. Sleep deprivation can lead to the decreased release of the hormone leptin and increased release of the hormone ghrelin, which can be associated with increased appetite and weight gain.The human body also relies on sleep to help with our immune system. Sleep deprivation is associated with increased inflammation and decreased antibodies to influenza and decreased resistance to infection.Inadequate sleep has been associated with a negative effect on mood as well as decreased attention and increased memory difficulty. In addition, someone who is sleep deprived may experience a decrease in pain tolerance and in reaction times. Occupational studies have associated sleep deprivation with decreased performance, increased car accidents, and more days missed from work.The role of the brainResearchers have known for a while that brain health is an important aspect of sleep. Notably, sleep is an important part of memory consolidation and learning.Newer research has suggested another important aspect of sleep for our brain: There is a system for the elimination of possibly harmful proteins such as abnormal variants of amyloid. This waste removal process, using what is known as the glymphatic system, relies on sleep to effectively eliminate these proteins from the brain. These are the same proteins found to be elevated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Studies show that older adults with less sleep have greater accumulations of these proteins in their brains.Our sleep-wake cycle is regulated by the circadian system, which helps signal the brain to sleep using the release of the natural hormone melatonin. It turns out that our body’s system for regulating melatonin and our sleep schedule is most powerfully controlled by light.There are cells in the retina of our eye that communicate directly with the brain’s biological clock regulators located in the hypothalamus and this pathway is most affected by light. These neurons have been found to be most affected by light waves from the blue spectrum or blue light. This is the kind of light most prominent in electronic lights from computers and smartphones. This has become a modern challenge that can adversely affect our natural sleep-wake cycle.Additional factors that can hamper sleep include pain conditions, medications for other conditions, and the increased demands and connectedness of modern society.As we prepare for daylight saving time, we can be mindful that many athletes have been including planned sleep extensions (sleeping longer than usual) into their schedule to enhance performance and that many professional sports teams have hired sleep consultants to help assure their athletes have enough sleep. Perhaps we should have a similar game plan as we approach the second Sunday in March. TAGSThe VOICE of Healththeconversation.com Previous articleSplash Pad finally approvedNext articleWhy you should vote for Theresa Mott: In her own words Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Please enter your name here You have entered an incorrect email address! 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Infection detection

first_img COVID-19 vaccine candidate at Beth Israel prevents severe clinical disease in animals What crowdsourced big data may be able to tell us about COVID The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. Health information self-reported by app fuels infection prediction model Related A tool designed to detect viral history in a drop of blood has gotten an upgrade in the age of COVID-19.VirScan, a technology that can determine which of more than 1,000 different viruses have infected a person, can now also detect evidence of infection from coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The insights could inform the development of COVID-19 treatments, vaccines, and blood-based diagnostic tests.In a paper published online Sept. 29 in Science, investigators from Harvard Medical School (HMS) and Brigham and Women’s Hospital offer a treasure trove of details about the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 and how this response may differ in individuals who go on to have a more severe case of COVID-19. “This may be the deepest serological analysis of any virus in terms of resolution,” said corresponding author Stephen Elledge, the Gregor Mendel Professor of Genetics in the Blavatnik Institute at HMS and Brigham and Women’s. “We now understand much, much more about the antibodies generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 and how frequently they are made,” he said. “The next question is, what do those antibodies do? We need to identify which antibodies have an inhibitory capacity or which, if any, may promote the virus and actually help it enter into immune cells.”Analyzing epitopesIn their analysis, Elledge and colleagues looked in depth at antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 by using VirScan to analyze blood samples from 232 COVID-19 patients and 190 pre-COVID-19 era controls. The team identified 800 sites of the virus that the immune system can recognize, known as epitopes. Not all epitopes are created equal; some may be recognized by neutralizing antibodies, which can elicit a response that eliminates the infection. However, if the body creates antibodies against other epitopes, it may launch a less effective response, giving the virus an advantage. In some cases, including the related coronavirus that causes SARS, viruses may even be able to benefit from the body’s antibody response, using antibodies to enter cells in a phenomenon known as antibody-dependent enhancement.In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the team detected a range of antibody frequencies against various epitopes. Many were public epitopes — regions recognized by the immune systems of large numbers of patients. One public epitope was recognized by 79 percent of COVID-19 patients. Others are considered private and recognized by only a few or even one individual. Ten epitopes were in regions essential for viral entry and are likely recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Putting insights to workThe team used the most discriminatory epitopes to develop a rapid diagnostic test.The team’s epitope findings may have important implications for vaccines. If the immune system’s response to public epitopes isn’t found to be protective — or even gives the virus an advantage — vaccines will need to target other regions of the virus to give the immune system a boost. In addition, the team found that there are several epitopes conserved across coronaviruses, and that the immune system is likely to try to reuse antibodies against them when infected with SARS-CoV-2 — a possible explanation for why so many serology tests for COVID-19 produce false positives. Not all created equalThe team further analyzed where and when different antibody responses occurred. They found that patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to launch a stronger, broader response against SARS-CoV-2, possibly because their initial immune response failed to control the infection early. Within hospitalized patients, males made more antibodies than females. The researchers also compared the viral histories of hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients and found that hospitalized patients were much more likely to have had CMV and HSV-1, two common herpes viruses. However, the researchers note that it is difficult to draw conclusions about causality given that the group of non-hospitalized patients was younger and consisted of a higher percentage of white people and women, demographic groups that generally have lower CMV infection rates. Elledge envisions the team’s studies as a stepping stone for identifying the most effective antibodies and eliciting them.“Our paper illuminates the landscape of antibody responses in COVID-19 patients,” he said. “Next, we need to identify the antibodies that bind these recurrently recognized epitopes to determine whether they are  neutralizing antibodies or antibodies that might exacerbate patient outcomes. This could inform the production of improved diagnostics and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.”Disclosures and fundingElledge and a co-author are founders of TSCAN Therapeutics; Elledge is a founder of MAZE Therapeutics and Mirimus; and Elledge serves on the scientific advisory board of Homology Medicines, TSCAN Therapeutics, MAZE and XChem and is an adviser for MPM, none of which impact this work. Elledge and two co-authors are inventors on a patent application filed by Brigham and Women’s (US20160320406A) that covers the use of the VirScan library to identify pathogen antibodies in blood.Funding for this work was provided by grants from the National Institutes of Health (AI121394, AI139538, a U24 grant), the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Value of Vaccination Research Network (VoVRN), the Executive Committee on Research at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness, the Pemberton-Trinity Fellowship, a Sir Henry Wellcome Fellowship (201387/Z/16/Z), the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program Enid Schwartz, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.  ‘Robust protection’ A public-relations campaign to build trust in COVID vaccine? Skeptics’ refusal may be big hurdle to ending pandemic, returning to normal last_img read more

Access Bank Makes Extra Donation to UNICEF, Takes Charity Shield to…

first_imgGMD/CEO, Access Bank, Herbert Wigwe (2nd right) and the Emir of Kano, Muhammadu Sanusi II (3rd right) presenting the Access Bank Charity Cup to the Captains of the two teams that played final of the Access Bank Cup, Babangida Hassan (4th left) and Adamu Atta (right), at the Guards Polo ground in Windsor, United Kingdom…last weekendAs part of its continued support of UNICEF, Access Bank Group, along with 5th Chukker, hosted the ‘Access Bank Polo Day’ at the Guards Polo Club, Windsor, United Kingdom last SaturdayThe annual event is the climax to the high-profile Access Bank/UNICEF Charity Shield Polo tournament, which is in its ninth year and is aimed at reaching out to and highlighting the plight of vulnerable children and orphans and internationally displaced persons. Based in Kaduna, it is the biggest charity polo tournament in Africa and stimulates support for the work of the UNICEF and Access Bank initiative across Africa. This year, the bank donated an additional N10million to UNICEF for its campaign against HIV/AIDS among Nigerian children.A new introduction to this year’s was the Emir’s Cup in honour of the Emir of Kano, Muhammadu Sanusi II who was in attendance in Windsor throughout the afternoon. For both polo games of the afternoon, the emir made a ceremonial throw-in to begin each game.The first game for the Emir’s Cup was between local team Delaney, patroned by Damian Duncan, and Keffi Ponies, patroned by Ahmed Wadada.It was a tightly fought game with Diego White for Keffi Ponies scoring the first goal, followed quickly with a return from Damian Duncan for Delaney.By half time the score was at 3-3 but Delaney quickly stormed ahead with a beautiful goal set up by Pite Merlos for Duncan to score taking their lead to 7-4. Keffi ponies came back strongly in the final chukka scoring two goals to take the final score to 7-6, with Delaney winning.For the second game of the afternoon, the Access Bank Charity Cup, guests were treated to something very rare in polo. Not only were all four members on the field of arguably the best polo team in the world, Adolfo Cambiaso’s La Dolfina, but they were also joined by Cambiaso’s son, Poroto (Adolfo Cambiaso Jr) and his daughter Mia Cambiaso.It was a fantastic game, showcasing the incomparable talents of the greats of Pelon Sterling, Pablo Macdonaugh, Juanma Nero and Adolfo. The teams were made up of Adamu Atta playing alongside Mia Cambiaso, Adolfo Cambiaso and Juanma Nero for Access Bank Fifth Chukker and Babangida Hassan alongside Adolfo Cambiaso Jr, Pelon Stirling and Pablo Macdonaugh.There was great team work from both teams, with flashes of brilliance from the young stars. It was another tightly fought game with the final score finishing at 4-4.Group Managing Director, Access Bank Plc, Herbert Wigwe explained the reasons behind the bank’s continued support for the Fifth Chukker UNICEF initiative.“We are conscious of our role as a change agent in Nigeria that can help institute socio-economic development through responsible business practice and environmental considerations,” he said. “In addition, we are continually seeking ways through which more resources can be pooled towards supporting the children. We are part of the community and as such should support its wellbeing.”Emir of Kano, Sanusi II, made the prize giving to the teams to bring an end to a very successful day for Access Bank and Fifth Chukker, at one of the most beautiful polo clubs in the world.Since the UNICEF/Access Bank initiative started, it has rebuilt two schools in Kaduna and, kept more than 8000 students in continuous education, while at the same time developing new school blocks and a computer literacy building all in a more secure and friendly school environment.The communities surrounding the schools are being supported with bore-holes for water, and sewing and grinding machines to secure employment and stimulate economic and social development.Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegramlast_img read more